Ikoni- ikkuna toiseen maailmaan
Ikoneiden kirjoittaminen varhaiskristillisyydessä alkoi Kristuksen kuvaamisesta visuaalisesti. Myöhemmin alettiin kuvata myös Jumalanäitiä, pyhiä ja marttyyreitä. Vuosisatojen kuluessa kirjoitustekniikka kehittyi paremmin kuvaamaan taivaallista luomatonta valoa ja myös muodon, värin ja sisällön symboliikkaa. Ikoneiden vaikutus ulottuu ikkunoista Jumalan Valtakuntaan aina ihmeparantumisiin ja ikoneiden eläväksitulemiseen eri tavoin. Ikonit vaikuttavat eri tavoin katsojiinsa. Näiden vaikutusten syntymiseksi on olennaista että katsoja on virittäytynyt oikein. Tämä virittäytyminen liittyy ikonien edessä hiljentymiseen ja rukoilemiseen (hiljentyminen rukoukseen on usein käytetty sanonta, jonka merkitys on se, että rukousta edeltää hiljentyminen). Virittäytyminen on myös ikoneiden "oikeinkirjoituksen" edellytys.
Mitkä ovat ikoneiden kirjoittamisen yleiset edellytykset? Mitä vaatimuksia voidaan esittää ikonien kirjoittajalle ja niiden "lukijoille"?
Taustasta ja puitteista
Tämän artikkelin perustana on idän Ortodoksinen ikonografia. Aloitin hiljattain ikoneiden kirjoittamisen, joten perustan oman näkemykseni lähinnä ikoneiden edessä seisomiseen, hiljentymiseen, rukoukseen ja katseluun, enkä niinkään omaan kirjoittamiseeni.
Niinkuin kaikki hyvin tiedämme symbolismi ei ole kristinuskon tai kristillisen kirkon keksintö. Ikoneiden maalaaminen liittyy läheisesti kristinuskon alkuperään ja sen lähteisiin. Richard Temple kirjoittaa asiasta selkeästi jäljittäessään ikoneiden maalaamisen Pythagoraksesta hellenistiseen aikakauteen (325 e.Kr. - 313 j.Kr.) päätyen tällä tavoin Plotinukseen ja Neoplatonistikkoihin. Hän kirjoittaa: ‘Ikoneiden taiteellinen, tyylimuotojen, jotkut jopa sanoisivat henkinen alkuperä, voidaan ajoittaa ajanjaksoon joka ulottuu useita vuosisatoja ennen Kristuksen syntymää aina neljännelle vuosisadalle sen jälkeen. Kristuksen ajoista saakka tämän ajanjakson loppupuolelle kristityt olivat historiallisesti marginaalitekijöitä; he kuuluivat epämääräiseen minoriteetti ryhmään, jonka sosiaalinen ja kultturellinen vaikutus ei ollut kovinkaan ilmeinen ennen niitä aikoja jolloin kristillisyydestä tuli roomalaisten virallinen uskonto vuonna 313.’ (Ref. 9).
Fayum - naisen muotokuva
Yllämainitut vaikutukset eivät ollet tärkeitä vain Kristillisten oppien määrittelemiseksi, jonka kirkon auktoriteetit myöhemmin tekivät, vaan myös nimenomaan ortodoksisen ikonitaiteen suhteen. Kirjailija John Anthony West kirjoittaa: ‘Egyptissä symbooli on huolella valituttu kuvallinen ilmaus, jonka tarkoituksena on herättää kokonaisvaltainen käsitys jostain ideasta tai käsitteestä. Tämän symboolin avulla voidaan "ajaa järjen ohi" suoraan sydämen älykkyyteen ja ymmärrykseen.’ (Ref. 6).
Esimerkkejä tästä ovat Faym muotokuvat, jotka ajoittuvat ajanlaskumme neljälle ensimmäiselle vuosisadalle ja jotka on löydetty sarkofageista Egyptissä muumioiden kääreiden joukosta ja arkkujen kansista. Faym muotokuvat ovat ensimmäisiä maalauksia joissa kuvattu henkilö katsoo intensiivisesti suoraan maalausta katsovaan. Tämän tyyppinen maalaustapa on tyypillinen ikoneille ja sitä voidaan pitää yhtenä ikonitaiteen ainutlaatuisista ominaisuuksista.
Onko tämä taidemuoto rajoitettu historiallisesti ja henkevyydessään Kristillisyyden piiriin? Varmaankin, siinä tapauksessa, että aihe on Kristillinen ikoni. Jos kuitenkin katsomme asiaa ns. objektiivisen taiteen näkökulmasta on todettava, että siihen luettavia taideteoksia löytyy kaikkien taiteen haarojen joukosta, niin myös maalaustaiteenkin. Ikonitaide on ehkä kuitenkin parhaiten tunnettu niistä taiteen lajeista, joissa on pystytty ilmaisemaan suhdetta korkeampaan olemisen tasoon.
Painting pictures is based on the interpretation of the artist. In visual arts and in this context in paintings, drawings and frescos, the artist ‘creates’ the work of art with the inspiration, imagination, vision, technique and skill he or she possesses. Many magnificent works of art have been made over the past 2000 years, also on Christian subjects, including artists like Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and many others. These are works of great beauty and grandeur pleasing to our eye. We have feelings of enjoyment and wonder when looking at this kind of art. Depending on our associations and the subjective state we are in, these feelings can also be very different from each other (Ref 2). Icon Writing is a source of knowledge and in this sense it is related to language. Icons are written, not painted. They are like Calligraphy in pictures. In visual arts this language is the language of symbols. With the help of the symbolic language the artist expresses the ideas and feelings that he wants to put into his work. In icons there is nothing indefinite; every form is decided beforehand. To write a "genuine Icon" is only possible at a higher level of consciousness when the writer is not identified with his or her own functioning and as a consquience putting into the Icon something of his own, something from this world we live in. The Icon speaks about another World, the world of silence. Of this world St. John of the Cros (a Saint venerated in the Roman Catholic Church) said: "The language of God is silence; everything else is translation". It is the silence, the prayer, in one word "Hesychia" that is expressed in the icons.
Some more details:
- it is said that icons are not painted, they are written (that they are written has its origin in the similarity of icon painting process to the writing and copying of old manuscripts – the painter painted the ‘original’ again and again and was also considered to be more a craftsman than an artist)
- the writer ‘prepares himself’ before starting to work, with going within and staying within, fasting, prayer and with the way he lives his life
- icons are not naturalistic and do not represent the world we sense, imagine and usually live in
- the use of a special language of the Christian Tradition in all the elements of the icon (colours, images, shapes, forms, layout and techniques)
- icons are windows, gates and mirrors to ourselves showing us 'something' of who and what we are
- icons communicate an unseen divine reality, beyond logic and thinking
- icons teach the Tradition using pictures and colours
- icons form a part of Liturgy (Liturgy means ‘the work of the people’
- Icons are written therefore it is important to learn to read them, to tune into them; without contact within icons look like primitive representations of historic events
- icons are venerated for what they represent, not as objects as such
- an icon is an embodiment of prayer; it is made with prayer and for prayer
- painting icons is also called Work
St. George and Dragon
The word "icon" comes from the Greek eikon, which means "image" and "to represent". Icon images, called ‘prototypes’, are of Christ, Virgin Mary, the saints and martyrs and important events from the Bible and the tradition of the Church. Icons represent the qualities in sacrifice, humility, devotion, faith, hope and love - and, not to forget, consciousness. Iconography is 'visual Theology', which thousands of years ago was also important because not all people were able to read. The first icons of Christ and His Mother are said to be painted by St. Luke. Some of the first ‘icons’ were painted on the walls of the catacombs - link to pictures in the catacombs.
Icons are called "windows to the kingdom of heaven" because they represent the spiritual world and the Kingdom of God that is within us. Icons are one of the ways God is revealed to us. Through icons, the Orthodox Christian receives a vision of the spiritual world. For the image of God the human image of Christ is used. In this way it is possible to have images of God himself in icons. Since the 9th Century, the Orthodox Church has established a set of technical rules, canons, for the artistic form of icons.
Apart from veneration the icon is for meditation and revelation. An icon communicates visually the unseen divine reality that comes under the perception of the senses. It suggests the light of another state of being, the state of deification.
In icons the person dominates the whole surface of the icon. The figure is brought in front to represent better the desire to establish a direct relation, intimate, with he who looks. If there are two or three persons, the picture must restore the communion of love that exists between them.
The predominant feature ascribed to saints is light. If the icon is to make this visible, it must have its own language. Forms and colours show the metaphysical luminosity of the represented. They manifest what the eye has not seen, but without suppressing all that is human. Everything is represented in its relation to the Divine. Naturalism is put aside and man and landscape are shown in a transfigured state.
The iconostasis is a wall of icons that separates the people from the servants, a symbol of a temporary separation. The iconostasis plays an important role in the Liturgy. The priests recite prayers and cense the icons, especially those left and right of the royal doors, making the presence and participation of the Holy person real, so that as the liturgy develops, the function and the symbolism of the iconostasis becomes clear. The person participates in a very tangible way in the communion of saints and the glory of the kingdom, when he kisses and venerates the icons of the lower row. The iconostasis is not a 'symbol' or an 'object of devotion;' it is the gate through which this world is bound to the other.
The icons cannot be represented according to the imagination of the artist or a living model. The relationship between the ‘prototype’ and the image would be lost. The icon writers use manuals, which describe the iconography scenes and colours to be used. However, the use of manuals alone is no guarantee for the painting of the sacred image. The painter must be 'illuminated', in contact with the ‘prototype’.
The Rules for Writing Icons
- before starting to work, make the sign of the Cross; pray, and forgive your enemies
- work with care on every detail of your icon, as if you were working in front of God
- during work, pray in order to strengthen yourself and keep silence
- pray in particular to the Saint whose face you are painting and avoid distractions, establish a relationship to the Saint
- first pray before the icon you have made yourself, before giving it to others
It should be born in mind that making the sign of the Cross, praying etc. can be done automatically, like most often is the case. These rules have an entirely different meaning when they are done with presence.
My First Encounter with an Icon
The deeper meaning represented by the icon requires from its writer an inner enlightenment, a higher level of consciousness. For the icon to talk to its observer a similar higher level of consciousness is required. The icon itself provides this as a possibility and allows us to penetrate its hidden meaning.
The Orthodox Church Museum of Finland in Kuopio has many fine quality icons, mainly original Russian icons that have found their way there from the Valaam Monastery. Over some thirty years ago I visited the museum for the first time. Nothing noteworthy was taking place until I came to an icon representing Staretz Macarius, who was one of the Elders of the Optina Monastery in Russia. He was a Staretz for nineteen years until his death in 1861. I had recently read a book about him and for some reason he appeared to me to be just the Optina Elder who expressed himself in a way that talked to me more than the others did, although Elders Anthony and Leonid, who I also read, were much more ‘popular’ and better known.
Suddenly he was looking at me! There was an eye contact between us that felt very real and made cold shivers run down my spine. This seemed to take quite a long time – I have no idea exactly how long, perhaps one minute – and I felt it strange. I was standing some seven feet from the icon and his gaze was constant and intense. I then moved to another position sideways his eyes following me. I went 10 yards further and he was still watching. When I some minutes later left the building he was still looking.
In Finnish I would express this look from the icon with the words ‘the icon is addressing me’. This ‘addressing’ was a piercing look that went directly into my marrow. It is unique to the icons. I have not acquired the habit of kissing the icons and cannot even recall if I made the sign of the Cross, most likely I did. The point is that the icon had spoken! The Orthodox interpretation of this in the words of a Russian theologist called Jevgeni Trubetskoi is: “we do not look at the icons, the icons look at us” (Ref 8). It was not ‘I’ who was looking, but it was Staretz Macarius who looked at me.
The ‘shock of the encounter’ (Ref. 11), as it is called by Richard Temple, does seem to be related to ‘being’, to ‘I am’. In the icons representing Christ the text often used in the nimbus around His head is based on Hebrew, Greek or Slavic words that are often translated as ‘I Am That I Am’.
During the 2000 years the techniques have changed, but the reality of our inner world and the unchanging God are still the same as it was then. If the icon painter is able to tune into his subject then he can produce an icon. It then remains for each of us to tune ourselves and to let is speak!
What It Takes to See and Icon?
When I first saw and Icon I had no idea of the demands it makes on the person who is confronted with such a work. I thought that if I see one then it will 'do' something and do it without any particular action on my part.
What we need to appreciate these works is perhaps best, apart from learning, expressed by the word 'experience'; not just any experience, but experience of the subjects that are being presented in these works. If what we have in our 'bag' in connection with icons is the ritual, the history it tells and only the outer form, then that is what we get out of it.
We can be reminded of (and as to repetition we can repeat) only those things that we have experienced. The illustration of this is the story of Captain Cook and how the aborigines in Tasmania could not see his ship, because it was far away and they had never seen one before. The same applies to the sense of hearing when we listen to music - as a Westerner I do not hear all the sounds in Chinese music. All the Asians do not hear the difference between the consonants 'l' and 'r' etc.
This inability to see or hear is because these have not been experienced; a blindness and deafness inside. This is just as much true about the artist; without the experience of a higher state of consciousness there is no way it can be expressed.
Yet experience alone is not enough, an Icon can not be created and it does not open in our normal waking state; it can only be created and fully appreciated when we are awake.
Ref . 2 - P. D. Ouspensky: In Search of the Miraculous, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957, p. 296
Ref . 5 – Archmandrate Arseni: Ikonikirja (This book is in Finnish, the name traslates: Icon Book), 2001, Otava, Finland, p. 68
Ref . 6 – John Anthony West: Serpent in the Sky, Quest Books, 1993, p. 129
Ref . 8 – Archmandrate Arseni: Ikonikirja (This book is in Finnish, the name translated is: Icon Book), 2001, Otava, Finland, p. 92
Ref. 9 – Richard Temple, Icons and the Mystical Origins of Christianity, Luzac Oriental Limited, 2001, p. 16
Ref. 10 – P. D. Ouspensky: In Search of the Miraculous, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957, p. 302
Ref. 11 - Richard Temple, Icons and the Mystical Origins of Christianity, Luzac Oriental Limited, 2001, p. 94
© Reijo Oksanen 2007-2010